Diabetes is a common diagnosis for home care patients. Diabetes drugs are now available that target the multiple defects of metabolism that characterize Type 2 diabetes. Understanding the wide variety of medications available will assist clinicians in guiding their patients through the complexities of diabetes self-care to promote optimal glucose control.

As the number of people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus has grown, so has the number of drugs to treat this chronic illness. T2DM is not a single defect of glucose metabolism rather it is a progressive metabolic disorder with defects in multiple systems (Unger et al., 2013). As more is learned about its complexity, drug therapies in development focus on a multitude of systems and mechanisms. Treatment options have become more complex, it is important for care providers to understand the differences in the various drug classes and insulin preparations. T2DM treatment must also address healthy lifestyle and cardiovascular health; however, this review will focus on hyperglycemia treatment. As with any review, specific drug details are not included. Professionals are encouraged to seek out complete references related to any particular medication.